-Play – A narrative that is meant to be performed before an audience.
– Parable – A story that contains a moral and is meant to teach a lesson.
– Short story – Fictional narrative that is shorter in length than a novel and often centers on one central event.
– Satire – A work that points out absurdities and foibles in an individual, policy, work, or aspect of society.
Narrative – a sequence of events that a narrator tells in story form.
Narrator – a storyteller of any kind
-Omniscient narrator – All-knoing narrator. We enter into the thoughts of many characters.
-Limited narrator – Narrator not all knowing. The narrator provides the thoughts of a single character.
-Objective narrator – Narrator describes actions and scenes without allowing access into the thoughts of any characters.
-Point of view – perspective that a narrative takes as it tells the events of a story
-First person narrative – Narrative told in the first person “I.”
– Second person – The reader is directly addressed in the story. The point of view is unconventional and rarely used, “you.”
-Third person narrative – Narrative told from the third person “she,” “he,” “they,” “it.”
-Protagonist – the main character of a story, or who the story is about – not necessarily the “god” character in a story. If the character is considered “good” he/she is referred to as the hero/heroine. If the protagonist is not considered admirable, he/she is known as the antihero/antiheroine.
-Antagonist – The force of person that opposes the protagonist – not necessarily the “bad” character/force in a story.
– Foil – Character who illuminates the traits of another character through contrast
– Round character – A character that has many dimensions or sides. An interesting character.
– Flat character – A character that is one dimensional.
-Dynamic character – A character that changes over the course of a piece of fiction.
– Static character – A character that doesn’t change over the course a piece of fiction.
-Setting – Where and when a story takes place. Not only the physical setting, also captures the time periods and the social attitudes of the time. In some stories, aspects of the setting -a house, for example – can become characters in a story.
– Plot – what happens in a given story or the events that make a story up
-Conflict- the central struggle that arises for the protagonist. Conflict fuels the plot. Conflict can be broken into categories: man vs. man, man vs. self, man vs. nature, man vs. culture, man vs. society
-Inciting Incident – initial action in the plot that introduces the conflict and sets the story into motion.
– Rising action – early part of the narrative that builds the conflict and moves the plot.
-Climax – the turning point of a narrative. Often (but not always) the moment of highest intensity in a story.
– Denouement or Falling Action – Occurs after the climax where elements of plot introduced prior to the climax are resolved.
-Resolution – The end of the story. Sometimes stories do not have a clear resolution. Sometimes questions and incidents are left “unresolved.” Usually, the resolution is the point in the ending when the main questions of the story are resolved.
Figures of speech- expressions that stretch words beyond their literal meanings
Alliteration – The repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants, at the beginning of words. Example: mother mumbled mournfully.
Personification – The use of human characteristics to describe animals, things, or ideas. Example: THe tree stood proud and unafraid.
Metonymy – The substitution of one term for another that is usually associated with it. Example: Those suits have it all (suits is used to represent businessmen).
Synecdoche – A form of metonym in which a part or an entity is used to refer to a whole. Example: How do you like my new wheels? (wheels is used to refer to car).
Cliche’ – An expression that has been used so frequently it has lost its expressive power. Example: Busy as a bee.
Euphemism – The use of decorous language to express vulgar or unpleasant ideas, events, or actions. Example: “passed away” for “died”
Hyperbole – an excessive overstatement or conscious exaggeration of fact. Example: You gave me a heart attack!”
Metaphor- Comparison of two unlike things without using “like” or “as.” Example: The room is an oven.
Simile – a Comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as.” Example: This rooms is like an oven/ This room is as hot as an oven.
Onomatopoeia – The use of words such as “pop,” “hiss,” and “boing,” that sound like the thing they refer to .
Paradox – A statement that seems absurd or contradictory on its face but often expresses a deeper truth. Example: “I can resist anything except temptation” (Oscar Wilde).
Allusion – A reference to a historical event, time, work or person (when one of these alluded to …). Allusions add depth and meaning to a work by implying symbolic or weighted meaning through the understood connection of another work. Example: “She’s a regular Eve” is a Biblical allusion to the Adam and Eve story and implies that the woman referenced is a temptress.
Foreshadowing – Suggestions or hints that are made by the author that refer to or preview events that will occur later in a narrative.
Irony – When the outcome of a perceived situation, event, saying, is different from what would be expected. Example:
Dramatic irony – Technique in which the audience is aware of circumstances outside a character’s knowledge. Example: Simba is unaware of Scar’s plan to kill Mufasa, but the audience is in on the plan.
Verbal irony – A statement that stands in contrast with its meaning. Sarcasm is a direct form of verbal irony (though not the only form).
Theme- What a narrative is about – the essential meanings and ideas explored in a narrative.
Motif – A Recurring image, symbol, idea, saying or structure that is used to support a theme
Imagery – Language that engages the sense of the reader
Symbol – A character, figure, objective, or color that represents a larger idea or abstract concept.
Tone- The author’s attitude toward the subject, the story, or the reader that creates the atmosphere of the narrative.
Mood – The feeling or atmosphere of the narrative that is created through the tone.
Style – The unique way authors create a body of work. The way authors construct sentences, develop scenes, write dialogue, use imagery all work to produce their style. For example, we talk of Hemingway’s style – his distinct sentence patterns, use of repetition, etc.
Diction – the author’s choice of words. Ask: is the diction formal (using complex words) r more informal? Does the diction include much slang? Diction helps authors create tone and establish style.
Syntax – THe way words are put together to create sentences. Sentences can be simple or complex.
Thesis – The central argument of a work of non-fiction or fiction.