Final Exam Study Guide

What should I expect?

Vocabulary

Grammar

Quote identification

Short answer

Reading comprehension

MLA Formatting

Essay

The exam will be CLOSED book, any reading material needed to complete the exam will be provided to you during the exam period.

  1. VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR

I will use words from your LITERARY DEVICES, THE GREAT GATSBY and THE THINGS THEY CARRIED vocabulary within the questions on your exam. If you are unfamiliar with the words and meanings you will be unable to fully participate in the exam. I strongly suggest you re-familiarize yourself with these words. In addition, you should be prepared to write grammatically correct sentences that demonstrate the meaning of a variety of vocabulary words.

You might also be asked to define Meta-Fiction, Talisman and Transcendentalism

  1. THE STORIES AND NOVELS

You should be prepared to accurately identify and discuss themes, symbols, motifs, characters, plot, narration style, and background information for the following texts as studied in class. In addition you should be able to identify quotes from the texts listed below based on content, word choice and style.

The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson

Selections from Walden by Henry David Thoreau

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass

The Turn of the Screw by Henry James (Honors)

The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien

  1. MLA FORMATTING

You will be asked to format or make corrections to a citation or a Works Cited page.

  1. READING COMPREHENSION AND ANALYSIS

You will be provided with a non-fiction reading passage. The passage will be related to The Things They Carried. You will need to

  1. Read the passage
  2. Answer questions regarding the passage
  3. Make connections between the article and The Things They Carried
  1. ESSAY QUESTION

You will be provided with THREE essay questions. You will choose ONE and respond in a three paragraph essay. Honors students will respond in four or more paragraphs.

POSSIBLE ESSAY PROMPTS:

  1. In The Things They Carried, many of the soldiers’ actions are the result of social pressure: O’Brien’s unwillingness to dodge the draft by fleeing to Canada even though he opposed the war, the dark humor the unit displays in the villages, and the fact that they would kill and die “because they were embarrassed not to” (p. 21). Identify instances where social pressure affects a character or the unit as a whole. Is this pressure positive or is it a negative influence? Support your answers with passages from the text.
  1. What is the relationship between truth and fact in The Things They Carried? Why are facts important? How much factual information do we need to understand the truth? How might knowing all the factual information about O’Brien’s service in Vietnam hinder us from understanding the book? How does the search for truth enhance the book’s plot? Support your response with passages from the text.
  1. Discuss the character of Daisy. Is she a noble character, or does she have anything about her character that makes her in any sense honorable? What seems to be her major motivation in life? How does that motivation affect her?
  2. Magicians are often referred to as “The Great ______________” Considering this aspect of the word “great” how is the title The Great Gatsby an appropriate title? How is Gatsby “great”? Focus on more than Gatsby’s new identity.
  1. HONORS: Henry James himself, as recorded in Leon Edel’s comprehensive biography,Henry James: A     Life, said that The Turn of the Screw was a ghost story— the ghosts were to be taken as real, not imagined. Knowing this information, does it change your interpretation of the novella? If you support Mr. James’      claim that the ghosts are real, support that claim with proof from the text. If you disagree (and you are      allowed to disagree) refute that claim with proof from the text.
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14 thoughts on “Final Exam Study Guide

  1. Jack Donaldson
    The Turn of The Screw
    Henry James- Formally American but moved to Great Britain and changed his nationality to British. Lived in the late 19th century. Was a big advocate for literary criticism.
    
Theme- Innocence: The children have innocence at the beginning of the story that slowly fades away. Corruption: Miles says there is nothing the governess can do to stop him from being bad. Flora continues to talk to mrs. Jessel. Perspective: the governess vs mrs. Gross. Sanity: Is the governess crazy and seeing ghosts or are they actually real.

    Symbol- The letter represents not only the isolation of the governess, but the corruption of Miles as well. Windows are what the governess sees the ghosts through more than once. The windows represent the separation from her and the ghosts, and also her and the children as well.

    Motif- Religion, innocence vs. corruption, vision, ghosts

    Characters- Governess: Young nanny that watches over Flora and Miles. Teaches them school and sees the ghosts.
    Peter Quint: Used to be friends with Miles, may possibly be trying to live through Miles.
    Mrs. Jessel: Used to be friends with Flora, committed suicide, comes back as ghost.
    Mrs. Gross: Housekeeper that helps the governess with the children
    Flora: Child that governess looks over, starts to become corrupt and ends being taken away by Mrs. Gross.
    Miles: Other child that the governess looks over. Sent home from school with no reason. Becomes devious and wants to be known as bad. Dies in the end.
    Plot- The governess falls in love with a master and agrees to work as a governess for his niece and nephew. She arrives at the house and Flora and Mrs. Gross greet her. They explain that Miles is at school. Everything is perfect until the governess sees Peter Quint in the tower. Mrs. gross doesn’t know what to believe, but the governess doesn’t know if she can trust the kids. Miles gets dismissed from school. Over the next few days the governess thinks the children are communicating with the ghosts. She watches over the children heavily, but one day mrs. gross takes flora away for reasons unknown. The governess then tries to protect Miles as she thinks Peter Quint is trying to live through him. Miles dies in the governess’ arms. Either she strangled Miles or Peter Quint left his body
    Narration Style- Henry James uses a narrative style that makes the reader forget the story is about ghosts and actually believe the events that take place. He uses a first person point of view to engage the reader as well.
    Important Quotes- I held tighter. “You like them with the spirit to be naughty?” Then, keeping pace with her answer, “So do I!” I eagerly brought out. “But not to the degree to contaminate – “To contaminate?” – my big word left her at a loss. I explained it. “To corrupt.”
She stared, taking my meaning in; but it produced in her an odd laugh. “Are you afraid he’ll corrupt you?” (2.16-18)

  2. The Great Gatsby Study Guide

    Things to Know

    Themes
    Love – love is what drives Gatsby to do the dubious things that he does to acquire his money. Love drives wealth, which drives corruptness and adultery.
    Wealth – Gatsby perceives wealth as the key to winning Daisy over. Bootlegging and other mischievous ways were used by him to receive his money. Wealth in the book is motivated by materialistic things and corruptible love.
    The past – “You Can’t Repeat the Past.” Nick Carraway told Gatsby. Gatsby tries to repeat the past by making his love affair with Daisy reoccur. He wants her to admit that she never loved Tom, daisy’s husband, ever. Gatsby wants a 100% admittance that she never loved Tom. He tries to recreate the bond and love that once occurred between himself and Daisy. Gatsby believes he can recreate the past love he once had with Daisy in the present with money.
    The American Dream – supposed to stand for hard work and desire for independence, but ends up materialistic and a selfish pursuit of pleasure. Gatsby tries to buy Daisy with his riches and mansion, thus signifying his desire for materialistic things. His hard work is for selfish pursuit of pleasure.
    The chase – Gatsby’s longing for a chase is what keeps him going even after he obtained what he wanted Daisy, but once he got her, it seemed as though what he had desired for so long meant nothing to him. What once was across the bay as a green light was now in touching distance and so insignificant to him now. He desired the chase to what he wanted, but once he got it, he did not want it anymore.

    Motifs
    Adultery
    Materialism
    Rain/Baptism

    Symbols
    Dr. TJ Eckleburg’s Eyes
    East and West Egg
    The Green Light
    Gatsby’s Mansion

    Characters
    Tom
    Daisy
    Nick
    Jordan
    Gatsby
    Old Owl Eyes
    Myrtle Wilson
    George Wilson

    Plot
    Nick Carraway moves out to New York from the Midwest. He meets with Daisy and Tom and soon meets Gatsby. He watches as Gatsby tries helplessly through extravagant parties and riches to win Daisy back and repeat the past. In the end, all the affairs with Tom, Myrtle, Daisy, and Gatsby come to a close when Myrtle is killed while Gatsby and Daisy are driving to East Egg.

    Narration Style
    First Person Limited Narrator – Nick Carraway is a first person limited narrator because he knew everything, he just did not tell us. He writes this and is possibly an unreliable narrator because he says in the beginning of the book that he is a hypocrite. It is also possible that he likes Gatsby a bit too much and is trying to put him in a light that he is not worthy of.

    Background Information
    New York, 1920s.
    Roaring Twenties.
    Time of prosperity, wealth, and jubilance.
    Racism was prominent.
    East and West Egg clashed
    East Egg – old money: snobby, greedy, sophisticated. Where Tom and Daisy live.
    West Egg – New money: humble, less sophisticated. Where Gatsby and Nick live.

    Great Gatsby Essays

    1.) Discuss the character of Daisy. Is she a noble character, or does she have anything about her character that makes her in any sense honorable? What seems to be her major motivation in life? How does that motivation affect her?

    She is innocent, white, like a Daisy. She is also a very shallow and disappointing character. She proves by the end of the book to be materialistic, selfish, and hurtful. She really loves Gatsby, but she stays with Tom because of the social status she has while married to him. Daisy is extremely materialistic and her sole purpose for marriage is money. She even deals with her husband’s obvious cheating scandals because Tom is extremely rich and she reaps the benefits of this. Gatsby’s riches make her cry, not the reuniting of the couple. The affair with Gatsby happens because she is getting back at Tom and because Gatsby now has tons of riches and is extremely wealthy. Daisy is extremely materialistic whose relationships are driven off the desire for money and wealth.

    2.) Magicians are often referred to as “The Great ______________” Considering this aspect of the word “great” how is the title The Great Gatsby an appropriate title? How is Gatsby “great”? Focus on more than Gatsby’s new identity.

    He is the Great Gatsby because of the false illusion that he is wealthy. He is not actually wealthy because he got it illegally. The parties are a pretense for his desire for Daisy. The parties are not for his enjoyment, but so that hopefully one day Daisy will look across the bay and realize his party. He puts on an extravagant and vibrant act so that Daisy will notice him.

  3. Themes

    Storytelling/ Truth- Through out the whole novel Tim O’Brien narrates all these war stories just to tell us they aren’t true. Just to tell us that every character and event was fictional. He did this to help us understand true story he is trying to get across to us. Not only tell us but to help us feel what he felt. If he just told us about Linda, we probably wouldn’t care. But he tells us all these stories to show you the hardships in the war, physically and mentally, all the burdens they carried so we can share the emotions he feels. Tim O’Brien uses storytelling to keep Linda and many others alive. He expresses through these stories with fictional characters that you can keep one person you love alive through story telling. He uses Linda to do this.
    Burdens (physical and emotional)- The book is titled, “The Things They Carried,” so the physical and emotional burdens they carried play a large role in the novel. In the first chapter it explains everything they carried physically from guns to their girlfriends panties. Later on, we learn that they carry emotional burdens as well. Examples include, Jimmy Cross who is still hung up over Martha and Tim O’Brien still feels love and guilt for Linda. These burdens they carried affected the war causing many of their comrades to die.
    Redemption- Redemption and guilt fall hand in hand in this novel because in many of these stories and event occurs where they make the wrong decision or action and cannot go back to change it. The only story where redemption and guilt are abolished is in “The Dentist” where Curt Lemon has to option to return back and get his tooth pulled out.

    Symbols

    Kiowa- Good America/ decency in war
    Azar- Corruptness in the war
    Kathleen- Modern America that’s clueless about the war
    Linda- Used to represent that the past can be brought back through storytelling.

    Motifs

    Yo-yo- represents the spin put on stories
    Story-truth vs. Happening-truth- uses this to establish feelings
    Isolation- Throughout the war many start to feel lonely and isolated

    Talisman- Something sentimental you keep with yourself for comfort or relief
    Meta-Fiction- when the author is a fictional character in the book and he stops to talk about the art of writing

  4. Skyler Eubank and Eli Pratt
    Transcendentalism Study Guide
    Beginning of Transcendentalism:
    • Began in New England in the 1830s and later died out around 1855.
    • Major transcendentalist; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Walt Whitman.
    • These writers/ thinkers believed that all people had endless opportunities for social and individual growth but they had to transcend their previous thoughts into thoughts of nature.
    • When transcendentalism first emerged, many held the attitude that European literature was better than American literature. Transcendentalist had no interest in being like the European authors, and set out to create their own style.

    Transcendentalism coming to an end
    • Most people were still in love with their possessions and wealth to realize they were becoming greedy, obsessed, selfish, and uncaring.
    • For these reasons, the time period known as the best attempt in American history to teach manners, etiquette, and awareness ended after a short time.
    • People seemed to care about technology and less about Nature during this time period.
    • People abandoned their ancestors’ appreciations of religion and freedom, and began to concern themselves more with wealth and progression.

    Transcendentalism
    • This time period was called transcendentalism because the transcendentalist wanted the people to become one with nature and “transcend” their thoughts to nature.
    • Transcendentalist (Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman) realized that the people were too worried about the wealth they could acquire and the possessions they could have than about the internal morality that was necessary to lead a good life.
    • Therefore, these authors (Emerson, Whitman, and Thoreau) focused their writings on nature, self-reflection, internal spirituality, intelligence, and awareness of one’s self in the world and to those around them.
    • In many ways, transcendentalism was a reaction to the pressures of society. Transcendentalist were skeptical of the educational and religious structures that were the norm in America.

    Thoreau quotes
    • “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.”
    • “Beware of all enterprises that require a new set of clothes.”
    • “I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life.”

    Emerson quotes
    • “Imitation is suicide”
    • “Listen to the inward voice and bravely obey that. Do the things at which you are great, not what you were never made for. To be great is to be misunderstood.”
    • “Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.”

    Major Tenets of Transcendentalism
    • Nature = God
    • God is omnipresent (present everywhere at the same time)
    • Man is divine
    • Intuition
    • Self-Reliance
    • Society is the source of corruption
    • Idealism
    • Materialism is bad
    • Technology is bad
    • Emphasis on the here and now
    • Against organized religion and political parties
    • Nonconformity
    • The goodness of man and nature

    European influences
    The American Revolution was influenced by both Empiricism and rationalism. The ideas that natural laws governed the political activity of humanity and that therefore people had natural rights meant they would reject a monarchy and a monarch in favor of self-government. The determinist ideas of natural sin were rejected in favor of human error and the idea that people could make themselves better through hard work reason and good intentions nullified the idea of a predestined hell. But none of the ideas associated with determinism, empiricism, or rationalism originated in America. These were European philosophical ideals. The first, and really only, American philosophical movement was transcendentalism and even though the movement died out in the mid-1850s its ideals continues to influence our culture to this very day.

  5. Justin Rockwell
    Tate Norman
    Michael Cormack

    What should I expect?

    Opening adjectives, delayed adjectives, opening adverb, delayed adverb, identifying, absolute phrase, clause types, adverb clause. Expect literary devices from al of the stories that we have read, including, The Great Gatsby and The Things They Carried, there will be vocabulary word within both of these stories that are important. Be ready to define Meta – Fiction, Talisman and Transcendentalism.

    Vocabulary:
    Cryptic
    Snuffling
    Tangible
    Latticework
    Peered
    Poignant
    Subterfuges
    Prodigality
    Complacency
    Infinitesimal
    Hemorrhages
    Ostracized
    Ironical
    Sadistic
    Grouping
    Compulsorily
    Qualms
    Exibitionist

    Motif- Recurring image, symbol, idea, saying or structure of the story that supports a theme
    Symbol- Character, figure, objective or color that can represent a larger idea
    Tone- Shows the author’s attitude toward
    Mood- Feeling or atmosphere of the narrative side of the story through the writers tone
    Setting- Location and time
    Diction- Author’s choice of words
    Irony- What you don’t expect to happen
    Epiphany- Sudden realization of something
    Metaphor- Comparison of two unlikely things without using “like”, or “as”. The room is an oven

    Protagonist – Leading character or major character in a text.

    Antagonist- one who opposes the Protagonist aka. Enemy

    Foil Character- character that contrasts protagonist

    Round character- a character that has many personalities, or sides

    Flat character- a character that has one side

    Dynamic character- a character that changes over a period of time

    Static character- a character that doesn’t change

    Plot conflict

    Inciting incident- initial action in the plot that introduces the conflict

    Rising action- early part of the narrative that builds the conflict and moves the plot.

    Falling action- all the things that take you from the climax to the resolution

    Resolution-The end of the story

    Theme- the essential meanings and ideas explored in a narrative.

    Motif – A Recurring image, symbol, idea, saying or structure that is used to support a theme

    Symbol-A Recurring image, symbol, idea, saying or structure that is used to support a theme

  6. The great gatsby

    THE STORIES AND NOVELS
    You should be prepared to accurately identify and discuss themes, symbols, motifs, characters, plot, narration style, and background information for the following texts as studied in class. In addition you should be able to identify quotes from the texts listed below based on content, word choice and style.
    1. Discuss the character of Daisy. Is she a noble character, or does she have anything about her character that makes her in any sense honorable? What seems to be her major motivation in life? How does that motivation affect her?
    • No: she killed someone, she didn’t show up to a funeral (Gatsby) of someone who helped her and she once loved, she thinks she’s better than everyone else by hiding behind Tom’s money. Her main motivation in life is money, and it effects her because her entire life becomes consumed by money, and her personality becomes terrible and she becomes conceited. Proof that she is motivated is found in the fact that she does not marry Gatsby when she first meets him, not because she doesn’t love him, but because he doesn’t have money.
    2. Magicians are often referred to as “The Great ______________” Considering this aspect of the word “great” how is the title The Great Gatsby an appropriate title? How is Gatsby “great”? Focus on more than Gatsby’s new identity.

    • A magician purports an illusion and is always creating an illusion to the audience. Gatsby’s entire life is an illusion that he purports the illusion to the audience (the entire world). Much like a magician is trying to create the illusion of something that is not there, Gatsby is trying to create the illusion that he comes from old money that he inherited, and has been rich his entire life, when in reality he does not come from old money and made his money through nefarious and illegal methods.

    Gatsby:

    Themes: class division, does money = happiness?, American dream, if true love exists or not, old money vs new money

    Symbols: Tj eckelberg’s eyes (the observer), green light, car, valley of ashes, baptism (swimming pool), weight (daisy being light to heavy towards the end)

    Motifs: light, color, side of town, alcohol (recklessness),

    Characters: Gatsby, Nick, Daisy, Tom Buchanan, George Wilson, Jordan, Myrtle

    Plot: Upper middle class Nick moves to West Egg to work and attempt to earn money by trading bonds and stocks, he wants to achieve the American dream by gaining more money and moving up the social ladder. Nick meets Gatsby, his neighbor, and Gatsby strikes up a friendship. Nick’s cousin is Daisy and he has an old friend, Tom Buchanan, who invites him to his mansion and to various nice lunches and shows him high society. Gatsby invites Nick to his mansion for a party, this becomes a regular occurrence. Gatsby’s reveals to Nick his love for Daisy and how he lost her years before. Because Nick is Daisy’s cousin, he sets up a tea date for Gatsby and Daisy. Daisy sees Gatsby’s mansion and Gatsby professes his deep love for her. Daisy changes her mind and Gatsby wants her to leave Tom and come to him. Tom disapproves of Gatsby and Daisy and gets jealous, even though he has been cheating on Daisy consistently. Tom comes to Gatsby’s party and is angry because Gatsby continues introducing him, because Tom thinks he is better and superior to everyone. Gatsby, Tom, Daisy, Nick, and Jordan go to lunch, where things become heated between Gatsby and Tom about Daisy, with both men expressing their love and Gatsby saying that Daisy only loves him. As the conflict escalates, the men leave the lunch, with Daisy going with Gatsby in his car, and the others leaving separately. Daisy drives Gatsby’s car, and she kills Myrtle on the drive back, but continues on anyway and goes back to Gatsby’s mansion. After Myrtle dies, Tom goes to George Wilson, (Myrtle’s husband) and tells him that Gatsby killed his wife. Gatsby is then shot by George Wilson who comes to his house and kills him while he is in the pool. Finally, Gatsby’s funeral is planned and begins, with almost no one showing up, signifying Gatsby’s aloneness in the world.

    Narration style: First person (Nick is the narrator)

    Background information: Fitzgerald loves Zelda, who is the sweetheart of the entire nation, and he needed to prove to her father that he was worthy of marrying his daughter. Fitzgerald came from good means, but was not in the upper class and did not have old family money. Fitzgerald proved to Zelda’s father that he was worthy of Zelda by publishing This Side of Paradise and making money as a writer. After publishing the book he became famous, and was even more famous after he married Zelda. Fitzgerald had a good name, but he had no money, but he hadn’t finished school or accomplished anything, so he needed to prove himself. The book was published during the roaring 20’s, a time of extreme prosperity in the US, and a time when fortunes were being made and the disparity of income was enormous. Prohibition was also an important action during the time of publishing as alcohol shows recklessness to the users of alcohol in The Great Gatsby.

  7. Vocabulary TTTC:

    Abiding
    Valor
    Jag
    Negligence
    Buoyant
    Sensibilities
    Mortification
    Henceforth
    Comport
    Hedge
    Cryptic
    Tangible
    Jittery
    Brittle
    Precautious
    Snuffling
    Novelty
    Configurations
    Turncoat
    Latticework
    Fishtail
    Encyst

    Great Gatsby:

    Sedative
    Impenetrable
    Sensuously
    Scampered
    Beaded
    Privy
    Perpetual
    Anemic
    Anon
    Sumptuous
    Prodigality
    Echolalia
    Epigram
    Extemporize

  8. The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien
    Themes: Love, war, peace, friendship, burdens, pressure, clarification
    Symbols:
    1.Stars/light – Death
    2.Tongues – silence, how you can’t talk about Vietnam
    3.Water – baptism, cleansing, transformation
    Motifs:
    1.People not being able to understand and listen
    2.Loneliness and Isolation
    3.Storytelling
    Characters:
    O’Brien and Linda are the main two characters
    Plot:
    O’Brien loves a girl named Linda who eventually dies, and he copes with her death by bringing her back to life through stories.
    Narration style:
    1st person (except for The Dentist, which is in 3rd person)

  9. Theo and Olafur

    Themes:

    Education is the Key – Constant self-education gives Frederick Douglass the key to freedom. Thus, slave owners forbade the education of slaves to prevent an uprising.
    Ignorance is Bliss – By keeping slaves isolated and uneducated, allows slave owners continually practice slavery on their land.
    Not Giving Up – Frederick Douglass had the determination to become absolutely free and so he had to go through multiple obstacles to become free.

    Motifs:
    Slave Women as a body to produce more slaves
    Separation of Family
    Baltimore vs. Rural South
    Education

    symbols:
    The magic root- even though Douglass says that only the more ignorant slaves believe in superstition he still wears the root and is kept safe.
    the white sails – The white sails shown over the bay represent freedom or revival of hope for freedom.

    Characters:
    Frederick Douglass: Frederick is the protagonist. He was born on a slaver’s plantation and is believed to be the son of his master. At a young age he was separated from his mother and she was sent to another farm. He used education to break his chains. He took every opportunity to learn and in the end we are led to believe that he used his education to escape the South.

    Plot:
    Douglass is born into slavery sometime in 1817 or 1818. He does not know his real birth date. Frederick is separated from his mother and does not know his real father. Young years in slavery was quite easy compared to other slave jobs. Douglass travels to Baltimore and enjoys a freer life up there. It is there when he begins to learn how to read and write taught by Sophia Auld. Thus, the root of the pursuit of freedom is planted. As he excels in learning how to read and write, Douglass becomes aware of the evils of slavery. Later, in his later years, Douglass transfers through many owners eventually ending up with Covey for a year. After a fight which relieves Douglass of the pressure of Covey, he goes to William Freeland. At his farm, Douglass begins educating other slaves and plans to escape off the plantation with some of them. The plan ultimately fails and ends up back in Baltimore to learn ship caulking. From ship caulking, he escapes to New York where he is free. At the end, Frederick Douglass is engaged heavily in the abolitionist movement.

    Narration Style:
    First Person because Frederick Douglass is speaking from his point of view and uses “I”.

    Background Information:
    Slavery
    South = Slave Heavy
    North = Land of Freedom

  10. Lindsey Kaplan, and Eileen Sakolsky
    Motifs

    Parties:

    Cars:

    Cheating:

    Geography:

    Weather:

    Symbols

    The green light:

    The valley of ashes:

    The eyes of doctor T.J. Eckleberg:

    Possible essay questions

    1. Explain what the people on the east egg are like, and how they differ from those on the west egg. What is the difference between new money and old money, and how does that effect how people are seen throughout the book?

    2. Explain what the green light represents, and what green as a motif represents throughout the book.

    3. Who is Jay Gatsby really, and how did he become the person he is for daisy, and why?

  11. Grammar

    Opening Adjective

    Examples:

    Single opening adjective: Powerless, we witnessed the sacking of our launch.

    Multiple opening adjectives: Bloodthirsty and brutal, the giants brought themselves to the point of extinction by warring amongst themselves during the last century.

    Opening adjective phrases: Numb of all feeling, empty as a shell, still he clung to life, and the hours droned by.

    Delayed Adjective

    Examples:

    Single delayed adjective: People under the helicopter ducked down, afraid, as if they were being visited by a plague or a god.

    Multiple delayed adjectives: Each snowflake was different, Sister Zoe said, like person, irreplaceable and beautiful.

    Delayed adjective phrase: A dog came bounding among us with a loud volley of barks, and leapt around us, wild with glee at finding so many human beings together.

    Opening Adverbs

    Examples:

    How: Unfairly, we poked fun at him, often in his presence.

    When: Then, Harry felt as though an invisible pillow had quite suddenly been pressed over his mouth and nose.

    Where: Outside, I found a taxi for her.

    Sentences can contain single or multiple opening adverbs:
    Single opening adverb: Incredibly, the man was still chasing after us.

    Multiple opening adverbs: Then, slowly, he fell to his knees and pitched forward onto the road, blood pooling red on the black asphalt.

    Delayed Adverb

    Examples:

    How: These crazy Saints stared out at the world, wildly, like lunatics.

    When: I wondered how I could have missed noticing, before, all those bones.

    Sentences can contain single or multiple delayed adverbs:
    Single delayed adverb: They smiled, delicately, like weary children remembering a party.

    Multiple delayed adverbs: He worked himself to death, finally and precisely, at 3:00 a.m. Sunday morning.

    Absolute Phrases

    A sentence part describing the rest of the sentence in which it appears. Absolutes are almost complete sentences.

    Examples:

    A teenager in a black tank top, a greenish tattoo flowing across her broad back, hoisted a toddler onto her shoulder.

    Two hard-faced men, both cradling submachine guns, stood watching him closely from the adjacent guard station.

    Appositive Phrase

    A noun phrase identifying a person, place, or thing named in a sentence.

    Examples:

    Identifying people: Harry was small and tough, a boy going through life with his chin stuck out a mile.

    Identifying places: I walked along Gilman Street, the best street in town.

    Single appositive: A bald slight man, he reminded me of a baby bird.

  12. Michael Feliz – Jake Fauske

    The Things They Carried – Tim O’Brien
    Final Exam Study

    Themes:
    Love, Loss, War, Truth, The Past, Death, Burdens (Physical and Emotional), Embarrassment

    Symbols:
    Letters, Buffalo, Yoyo, Martha’s Pebble, ice-skating, floodlight

    Motifs:
    Baptism/Water, Light (Star), Letters, Story-truth vs. Happening-truth, Story Telling, Isolation

    Characters:
    Fictional Tim – The Tim within the book reliving the war
    Real Tim – The author creating these stories of his former unit
    Kiowa – The Tanto to Tim’s Lone Ranger, drowns in a shit field
    Linda – The love of 9 year old Tim’s life
    Norman Bowker –hangs himself from a WATER pipe when home
    Henry Dobbins – Solider Jesus, wears pantyhose for good luck
    Curt Lemon – Gets blown up into the trees by a land mine, the sunlight took him
    Rat Kiley – Best friend to Lemon, shoots himself in the foot
    Ted Lavender – Addicted to tranquilizers and weed, gets shot in the head
    Mitch Sanders – Teller of stories, obsessed with the truth and morals
    Elroy: On Boat With Tim, takes him to the point where he must decide whether to go to Canada or go to War, Silent Observer
    Azar – “Just a boy,” prone to cruel acts like blowing up puppies and making fun of girls
    Jimmy Cross – Lt. of the unit, in love with Martha who doesn’t love him back

    Plot:
    An aging writer looks back on his trip to Vietnam, the unit he was with, all the friends he lost, and how he changed because of it. He cannot let go of the trauma he experienced there, yet there are underlying memories holding him down all the way back from 4th grade. The Things They Carried is O’brien reliving the war while secretly trying to show readers his underlying pain and truth.

    Narration:
    First Person, changes between O’brien and a few others

    Other Ideas:
    Discerning the difference between Story-Truth (What happens underneath, reading between the lines) and Happening-Truth (The physical events described by the author)

    Vocab:
    Sensibilities
    Jag
    Encyst
    Valor
    Comport
    Abiding
    Hedge
    Henceforth
    Negligence
    Gross
    Mortification
    Buoyancy
    Snuffling
    Turncoat
    Latticework
    Fishtail
    Cryptic
    Novelty
    Jittery
    Tangible
    Brittle
    Precautions
    Configurations
    Tack

  13. The things they carried
    Themes: friendship; friendship can also be called love, the friendship, or bond the soldiers make in war is inseparable. Everyone in America do not know what the soldiers are going through, so the soldiers got each other they carry each other through Vietnam.

    Guilt; they all carry this common theme; they are all guilty for the death of everyone. As people die, they blame themselves. Like when Kiowa died, O’Brien blames himself because he turned on the flashlight. Or jimmy cross blaming himself for not going into a higher ground, he was just following rules, but he should have made his own decisions.

    Weakness; all the characters in the things they carried went through the same experience, most of them did not want to go to war, however they had to. They were all drafted and that is the one weakness they all have. Not going to war is seen as weak, no matter how strong and courageous they are they will never be courageous or strong enough, they will always be weak.

    Symbols:
    The sewage field: in “speaking of courage” when norman bowker cant stop driving around a lake while he thinks of kiowa’s death.

    The dead, dainty young man: the young man represents every UNIDENTIFIED Vietnamese death

    Mary anne bell: mary anne represents all the soldiers, she arrives as an innocent person, however then she is changed.

    Motifs:
    Humping
    -“To carry something was to hump it, as when Lieutenant Jimmy Cross humped his love for Martha up the hills and through the swamps.”(3)

    Perception Vs. Reality
    -“A thing may happen and be a total lie; another thing may not be truer than the truth.”(80)

    Embarrassed
    -“I would go to the war – I would kill and maybe die – because I was embarrassed not to.”(57)

    War can change a man/women
    -“On their way back up to the compound she stripping down to her underwear, showing off her legs while Fossie tried to explain to her about things like ambusehes and snipers and the stopping power of an AK-47.”(92)

    Characters:
    Tim Obrien: protagonist, there is the fictional Obrien and the writer. He symbolizes storytelling. He survived war, and came back to write the short stories.

    Kiowa: he is a soldier that dies in a shit field. He is one of O’brien’s closets friends. Even after war Obrien comes back to visit him

    Curt lemon: he is also a soldier, which also dies in the story, however he dies when looking into a light. He is brave, so brave that he made the dentist take a healthy tooth out.

    Jimmy cross: he is the leader. He does not focus in war so much, his mind its still back home. He always thinks about Martha, even when he should be focusing in war.

    Norman bowker: he survived the war, however when he got back he killed himself because of the guilt. He represents how soldiers come back with problems from war and how war changes you

    Rat kiley: he is the medic that shoot his own foot, just so he can be taken out of war. He tried, however he did not make it

    Henry dobbins: he treats everyone with respect, he is a big man
    Ted lavender: he is a very emotional soldier, he is killed

    Mary Anne: he is fossie’s girlfriend and she represents all the soldiers, and how war corrupts you.

    Plot:
    The story begins with many soldiers carrying the necessary objects to survive in Vietnam. They are all walking and going through Vietnam. The soldiers are all in the alpha company. Many of the things they carried were weapons, however others carried things such as memories from back home. Throughout the stories the same characters keep reappearing. The first person that dies is ted lavender; he always takes tranquilizers and smokes marijuana. He gets shot in the head, and jimmy cross is the one who takes the blame for it, because he is distracted and thinking about Martha. On the rainy river the narrator explained all he did before coming to Vietnam. He expressed how he almost id not come to Vietnam, and almost crossed the Canadian border. As the story goes curt lemon gets killed. Then lee strunk also dies in enemies. In friends and enemies it is possible to see how friendship plays a big theme in the things they carried. They all have each others back even on their worst day. In speaking of courage norman bowker thinks he has failed in keeping kiowa alive. The narrator shows us how important it is to listen, and understand, Obrien dealt with kiowas death in a different way. Norman bowker killed himself because no one listened to him and no one understood what he had gone through. By the end of the story it is possible to see how all the stories relate to each other, they all repeat, and they all end up being about linda, Obrien’s first love. She died of cancer and he could not do anything about it.

    Narration style: omniscient narrator, he knows all because he is retelling his own life stories

  14. A2 – Gatsby
    Themes:
    – The American Dream (Gatsby)
    – Love – not necessarily a love for other people but a love for the tangibles such as wealth
    – Shallowness in Social Classes – The higher social classes possess a lot of wealth but little to no moral code
    – Foolishness

    Symbols:
    – Colors in general (green=greed, white=purity)
    – East and west; the further east you go the further you travel from purity and become closer to corruption
    – Books in the library represent how the lies can appear real until you open the book and look inside for lies
    – Names

    Motifs:
    – Green light – represents the greed and deception Gatsby feels and experiences
    – Parties represent loneliness
    – The use of color
    Characters –
    – Daisy Buchanan – Static Character, Foil of Jordan
    – Nick Carraway – Dynamic Character, Foil of Gastby
    – Tom Buchanan – Dynamic Character, Antagonist
    – Jay Gatsby – Dynamic Character, Protagonist
    – Myrtle Wilson – Flat Character
    – George Wilson – Dynamic Character
    – Owl Eye – Observer
    – Jordan Baker – Static Character
    Plot – A lower class man (nick) becomes involved in the higher class lives of his newly acquainted friends (Daisy, Tom, Jordan). He forms a friendship with a greedy man (Gatsby) and becomes entangled with the conflicts caused by falsified love and greed.
    Narration Style – The novel is told from a first person point of view (Nick Carraway) who acts as a limited narrator.
    Background Info – F. Scott Fitzergerald was isolated in his home, his wife had schizophrenia, he had one daughter named Scottie, he died of alcoholism (and liver failure), only three people attended his funeral because everyone else forgot about him.

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